Thursday, March 19, 2020
African-Americans and the Civil Rights Movement essays The Civil Rights Movement gave African-Americans many rights that would change their lives forever. Without the Civil Rights Movement, our world is significantly different today because African Americans would still be segregated from the white world. Before the 1950's African Americans held very few rights in the South. The Southern states made sure that whites and blacks were segregated. Blacks could not eat in the white diners or restaurants; they couldn't even use the same restrooms or drinking fountains as the whites. The blacks were almost treated like they weren't even humans. They were also segregated from the whites in education and had very few legal rights. Groups such as the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and the SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) worked to change the views of the white American. These activist groups played a major role in the advancement of African-Americans in education, public rights, and legal rights . "These groups paved the way for the African Americans road to freedom."(1) The African Americans first step to freedom was gaining the same educational rights that the white race had. Before 1954, The white people would not allow their children to go to school with African-Americans. Since the blacks could not go to the same schools as the whites, they were forced to start their schools which received very little funding and were poorly run. The Supreme Court changed education for African Americans forever on May 17, 1954, when it unanimously agreed that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. The landmark case that changed African American education forever was known as Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The supreme court believed that segregation was unconstitutional because it violated the 14th amendment. "The court believed that by having segregated schools solely based on the race of a person skin, it denied African Americ...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Overview of O. Henry's 'Two Thanksgiving Day Gentlemen' Two Thanksgiving DayÃ Gentlemen by O. Henry is a short story that appears in his 1907 collection, The Trimmed Lamp. The story, which features another classic O. Henry twist at the end, raises questions about the importance of tradition, particularly in a relatively new country like the United States. Plot An indigent character named Stuffy Pete waits on a bench in Union Square in New York City, just as he has on every Thanksgiving Day for the past nine years. He has just come from an unexpected feast provided for him by two old ladies as an act of charity and he has eaten to the point of feeling sick. But every year on Thanksgiving, a character named the Old Gentleman always treats Stuffy Pete to a bountiful restaurant meal, so even though Stuffy Pete has already eaten, he feels obligated to meet the Old Gentleman, as usual, and uphold the tradition. After the meal, Stuffy Pete thanks the Old Gentleman and the two of them walk in opposite directions. Then Stuffy Pete turns the corner, collapses to the sidewalk, and has to be taken to the hospital. Shortly after, the Old Gentleman is also brought to the hospital, suffering from a case of almost starvation because he hasnt eaten in three days. Tradition and National Identity The Old Gentleman seems self-consciously obsessed with establishing and preserving a Thanksgiving tradition. The narrator points out that feeding Stuffy Pete once a year is a thing that the Old Gentleman was trying to make a tradition of. The man considers himself a pioneer in American tradition, and every year he offers the same overly formal speech to Stuffy Pete: I am glad to perceive that the vicissitudes of another year have spared you to move in health about the beautiful world. For that blessing along this day of thanksgiving is well proclaimed to each of us. If you will come with me, my man, I will provide you with a dinner that should make your physical being accord with the mental. With this speech, the tradition becomes almost ceremonial. The purpose of the speech seems less to converse with Stuffy than to perform a ritual and, through elevated language, to give that ritual some kind of authority. The narrator links this desire for tradition with national pride. He portrays the United States as a country self-conscious about its own youth and striving to keep pace with England. In his usual style, O. Henry presents all of this with a touch of humor. Of the Old Gentlemans speech, he writes hyperbolically: The words themselves formed almost an Institution. Nothing could be compared with them except the Declaration of Independence. And in reference to the longevity of the Old Gentlemans gesture, he writes, But this is a young country, and nine years is not so bad. The comedy arises from the mismatch between the characters desire for tradition and their ability to establish it. Selfish Charity? In many ways, the story appears critical of its characters and their ambitions. For example, the narrator refers to the yearly hunger which, as the philanthropists seem to think, afflicts the poor at such extended intervals. That is, rather than commending the Old Gentleman and the two old ladies for their generosity in feeding Stuffy Pete, the narrator mocks them for making grand annual gestures but then, presumably, ignoring Stuffy Pete and others like him throughout the year. Admittedly, the Old Gentleman seems much more concerned with creating a tradition (an Institution) than with actually helping Stuffy. He deeply regrets not having a son who could maintain the tradition in future years with some subsequent Stuffy. So, he is essentially fostering a tradition that requires someone to be impoverished and hungry. It could be argued that a more beneficial tradition would be aimed at wiping out hunger altogether. And of course, the Old Gentleman seems much more concerned about inspiring thankfulness in others than about being thankful himself. The same might be said of the two old ladies who feed Stuffy his first meal of the day. Exclusively American Though the story doesnt shy away from pointing out the humor in the characters aspirations and predicaments, its overall attitude toward the characters seems largely affectionate. O. Henry takes a similar position in The Gift of the Magi, in which he seems to laugh good-naturedly at the characters mistakes, but not to judge them. After all, its hard to fault people for charitable impulses, even they come only once a year. And the way the characters all work so hard to establish a tradition is charming. Stuffys gastronomic suffering, in particular, suggests (however comically) a dedication to the greater national good than to his own well-being. Establishing a tradition is important to him, too. Throughout the story, the narrator makes several jokes about the self-centeredness of New York City. According to the story, Thanksgiving is the only time that New Yorkers make an effort to consider the rest of the country because it is the one day that is purely American [Ã¢â¬ ¦] a day of celebration, exclusively American. Perhaps whats so American about it is that the characters remain so optimistic and undaunted as they bumble their way toward traditions for their still-young country.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Deficiency in the Neo-Classical Labour Market Model and Possible Solution - Essay Example Neo-Classical theorists argue that households are suppliers of labour, and that they are rational in seeking to maximize their usefulness in return for payment. In the Neo-Classical model this usefulness are determined by the choice of workers between work and leisure, which is also constrained by the available hours per day. The graph below gives indication of a workers choice of allocating time between work and leisure. Point A in graph 1 gives an indication of what a worker's usefulness may be with the choice he makes between work and leisure. However, this graph will be influenced by other variables as well, such as the wage rate and the cost of living. If for example the wage rate rises, workers will forgo more of their leisure time and increase working hours to earn more. On the graph point W1 shift to W2 when wages increase, and this leisure time decrease to point L2, as less time is available due to more time being spend at work. The marginal revenue product of labour can be used as the demand for labour curve for this firm in the short run. In competitive markets, a firm faces a perfectly elastic supply of labour which corresponds with the wage rate and the marginal resource cost of labour. In a inperfect market this curve will have to be adjusted to reflect the wage rate divided by marginal costs. Graph 3: Labour Market Demand Curve In a perfect world the supply and demand curve would have adjusted to the optimal equilibrium point through market influences alone. The amount of workers in the market would compete on the same level for the available jobs and the wages firms will be willing to pay for labour. But due to facts such as unions, automation, economical sentiment, the actual productivity of workers and continuous unemployment rate the Neo-Classical method is insufficient to predict how the labour market behaves in reality. Theorist argues that one of the reasons the Neo-Classical method is not working is due to the fact that employees already in the market are protected and those that is outside the market, the unemployed or those looking for alternative work cannot compete on the same level with the employed. This is called the inside/outside theory, and according to Blanchard and Summers (1986, 1987) when an employment shock takes place, and workers loose their jobs, they not only become un-employed but loose their protection from the real market, such as their union membership.1 This prevents the labour market's rapid return to pre-shock employment levels. This theory is supported by Lindbeck and Snower (1988, 2001) as they argue that the cost to Firms in replacing their employees with un-employed will dramatically increase their turn-over cost. Turn-over cost includes hiring, training and firing cost, making it unprofitable for firms to employ outsiders. They also continue by arguing that newly employed workers have to go through several stages before they are accepted as insiders. Layard et al (1991), identified that workers that became unemployed and stayed unemployed for long will
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Enzymes - Essay Example The amino acid chain carries a unique shape which is tailor made to help the chemical reaction necessary for the amino acid to perform a specific action. Enzymes can therefore be considered to be catalysts for specific actions or reactions such as in the case of food digestion. These enzyme reactions are chemical processes that happen quite fast an are actually unnoticeable. In human beings, Digestive Enzymes are highly important in the process of breaking down digested food and its transformation into energy proteins. An enzyme is basically a part of the human DNA chain. The DNA of a person serves as the instruction manual of the biological system in the production of protein cells, which, for the basis of this research, we will call enzymes. Therefore, the Human Gene, which is a part of the DNA serves as the template of the human body in forming an enzyme. These enzymes are stored within cells which are molded and shaped for easy chemical recognition and reaction. This chemical pro cess will be discussed further within this paper. Scientists have been studying the importance of enzymes to the human anatomy for well over a century. The earliest enzyme studies date all the way back to 1835 when Swedish biochemist Jon Jakob Berzelius first recognized and named the actions he observed within the enzymes as catalytic. But it was not until 1926 when Cornell University's James B. Sumner was able to extract an enzyme in its purest form from a jack bean which he was able to successfully isolate and crystallize. He won the Noble Peace Prize in 1947 for this remarkable accomplishment. However, he shared this honor with two other people, John H. Northtrop and Wendell M. Stanley of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. They developed a precipitation technique which was used to crystallize several enzymes (Introduction to Enzymes, 2). Enzymes all come into existence because of proteins. These particular proteins have high molecular weight compounds ranging from 10 ,000 - 2,000,000 and are composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds (Introduction to Enzymes, 2). Enzymes cannot be taken for granted in the daily function of the human body. It is the most vital chemical component of our system because our heart, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, basically all our major and minor organs are dependent upon enzymes in order to keep our body in running condition. Without these enzymes, our body will not be able to prevent degenerative diseases, we will are at a rapid pace, and our energy will not be able to sustain our daily physical functions. Think of the enzymes as the monetary currency of our body. When we eat, we put a deposit into our enzyme bank where it is broken down by digestive enzymes and completely digested in order to insure the absorption of nutrients which our body can draw upon whenever our energy level runs low. If our body is deprived of enzymes, it will cease to function and will eventually die out. One must bear in mind however that since enzymes comprise different chemical needs of the human system, these chemical reactions that are necessary in order to sustain human life only occur when necessary. In actuality, the enzymes inside the cell direct which particular chemical will be triggered and created in order to sustain the energy level of a person. In order to reach this equilibrium state at the fastest possible time, enzymes lower the activation energy needed for a chemical reaction. This biochemical reaction numbers about 4,000 but the enzyme that serves as the catalyst is not consumed by the reactions which is why there is no alteration in the equilibrium and metabolic pathway of these reactions. These metabolic pathways are created by several enzymes working
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Gender Roles The affects of gender roles on people greatly change the way the society runs. According to the Webster's dictionary the definition of gender are the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex, and the definition of role is a character assigned or assumed. The key word in this definition is assumed; therefore, whether you are male or female, you know what role you must play in society. Traditional gender roles are beneficial to society. They benefit society in many ways including keeping stability, order and generally making life easier. Women have to work two jobs: outside the home and within the home, taking care of the children. Children that are not raised by their parents do not end up as well as kids that are. These are some of the many reasons why we should have traditional gender roles. Gender roles provide stability and order in society. For example, in societies with traditional gender roles there are arranged marriages. Arranged marriages provide stability and order, because it takes the stress off women and men. It also eliminates the fear of rejection from either side. It keeps order because the woman will stay in the house, take care of the kids while the men will go out and make a living for the family supporting them with money. Additionally, women work too hard in non- traditional role societies. In non-traditional role societies, women work too hard with the combined jobs of house and the workload outside the house. Men and woman have called a cease-fire on the fight between gender roles that took place during much of 20th century. However, now the problem is .. ...ty, and in non- traditional gender role societies woman are over worked by the stress of their job combined with household work. Lastly woman are better nurturers than men therefore they should stay home with the children. Traditional gender roles are beneficial to society. Work Cited ---------- 1) Anderson, Porter. CNN. 1998. 08 Apr. 2002 . 2)Gender Studies University of Gdansk. 02 Feb. 1991. University of Gdansk. 07 Apr. 2002 . 3) Morin, Richard, and Megan Rosenfeld. Washington Post. 22 Mar. 1998. 07 Apr. 2002 . 4) Role of Woman in Islam. 10 Apr. 2002 . 5) The Family: At Home is a Heartless World. Vol. 1. N.p.: Harper Collins, 1995.
Friday, January 17, 2020
In 1163, a quarrel began between the British King Henry II and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket. The men had been good friends, but each felt that his interests should be of primary concern to the nation and that the other should acquiesce to his demands. Becket fled to France in 1164 in order to rally support from the Catholic French for his cause and also sought an audience with the Pope. After being officially (although not personally) reconciled with the King, Becket returned to England in 1170, only to be murdered as he prayed in Canterbury Cathedral by four of Henry's Knights. Three years later, he was canonized and pilgrimsÃ¢â¬âHenry among themÃ¢â¬âhave made their way to his tomb ever since. The allure of such a story for a dramatist is obvious: there is a great conflict between human and divine power, a strong central character and a number of complicated spiritual issues to be found in his death. In 1935, T. S. Eliot answered this Ã¢â¬Å"callingÃ¢â¬ to compose a play for that year's Canterbury Festival; the result was a work that revitalized verse dramaÃ¢â¬âa form that had not been widely employed for almost three hundred years. Critics praised Eliot's use of verse and ability to invest a past historical event with modern issues and themes, such as the ways in which lay persons react to the intrusion of the supernatural in their daily lives. In part because it is a religious drama which appeared long after such plays were popular, Murder in the Cathedral is still performed, studied, and regarded as one of Eliot's major works, a testament to his skill as a poet and dramatist. In its assessment of Eliot's importance to modern English literature, A Literary History of England argues that a shift from despair to hope-a change from Ã¢â¬Å"the Ã¢â¬Ëinert resignation' of those who breathe the small, dry air of modern spiritual emptinessÃ¢â¬ to something more positive and potentially transcendent-can first be detected in Eliot's Ã¢â¬Å"Ash-WednesdayÃ¢â¬ (1930), Ã¢â¬Å"of which the theme is the search for peace found in humble and quiet submission to God's WillÃ¢â¬ . This theme, clearly an expression of the Anglo-Catholicism Eliot embraced during his life, appears again throughout Murder in the Cathedral. It informs and breathes through the entire text of the play, as the commentary above has demonstrated. In Murder in the Cathedral, the Ã¢â¬Å"inert resignationÃ¢â¬ of modern life manifests itself in the Chorus' refusal to embrace transcendence: the women of Canterbury are content to go on Ã¢â¬Å"living and partly living. Ã¢â¬ As they state, even imploringly to Becket, on several occasions, they Ã¢â¬Å"do not wish anything to happen. They do not want the wheel of God's pattern to begin turning. As do all moderns in Eliot's estimation, they Ã¢â¬Å"fear the injustice of men less than the justice of God. Ã¢â¬ They are not ready to live, as Becket was, Ã¢â¬Å"out of time. Ã¢â¬Å"Yet, through Becket as he portrays him, Eliot forcefully argues that such transcendence must be achieved. In keeping with biblical testimony about the nature of spir itual power versus temporal power, however, Eliot posits that transcendence cannot be achieved by force. It arises, not through utilitarian machinations (such as those the Four Tempters propose to Becket in Part I), but by, in the Literary History's words, Ã¢â¬Å"humble and quiet submission to God's Will. Ã¢â¬ As Becket himself declares, Ã¢â¬Å"I give my life / To the Law of God above the Law of Man. Ã¢â¬ His triumphant affirmation of faith echoes the words of the New Testament: Ã¢â¬Å"Whether it is right in God's sight to listen to you rather than to God, you must judge; for we cannot keep from speaking about what we have seen and heardÃ¢â¬ (Acts 4:19-20); or again, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? (James 4:4). Only by valuing Ã¢â¬Å"friendshipÃ¢â¬ -i. e. , a total alignment of mind and soul and will-with the spiritual, with God, over such friendship with the world or the temporal order of the status quo, can Ã¢â¬Å"peaceÃ¢â¬ -that elusive goal referred to throughout the play: in Becket's fragile relationship with King Henry; as Bec ket's greeting to the Chorus in Parts I and II; as the turning of God's wheel of providence-be found. In this way, the themes of Murder in the Cathedral aptly crystallize the themes of Eliot's own life-long work. The wheel was a symbol, in medieval times, of the Ã¢â¬Å"wheel of lifeÃ¢â¬ or the Ã¢â¬Å"wheel of fortune,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"which never stands still, being constantly subject to the turns of fateÃ¢â¬ (Dictionary of Symbolism, p. 379). No doubt Eliot draws on these ancient associations in his text's multiple references to the wheel, but he also subverts them by stating that, in fact, the wheel of fate-or, in Eliot's Anglo-Catholic worldview, of God's providence and plan for history-has in fact been standing still during Becket's seven-year absence from Canterbury. As discussed earlier, the length of Becket's exile is itself of metaphorical importance, since seven symbolizes totality and completeness. ) Becket's task is to set the wheel turning again: to take his part, willingly and completely, in God's Ã¢â¬Å"patternÃ¢â¬ (another word-image that occurs frequently in the text) so that the wheel can resume turning and that Ã¢â¬Å"peaceÃ¢â¬ can replace the mere existence of Ã¢â ¬Å"living and partly living. Ã¢â¬Å"The seasons also carry symbolic freight in Eliot's play. The most notable example is the Chorus' invocations of the passage of the seasons at the beginning of Part I and then at the end of Part II. At the beginning of the play, the passing seasons are in actuality one long season of waiting, one endless Advent. But by the play's end, after Becket's martyrdom, the seasons in their cycle have become part of human beings: Ã¢â¬Å"Even in us the voices of seasons . praise Thee. Ã¢â¬ Eliot's use of seasonal imagery will no doubt remind readers of his work in The Waste Land (1922). That epic poem's first line, Ã¢â¬Å"April is the cruelest month,Ã¢â¬ reinforces the poem's dominant mood of pessimism in the face of what Eliot sees as the moral and spiritual bankruptcy of the then still-young twentieth century. As in Murder in the Cathedral, the passage of the seasons in The Waste Land is not a healthy cycle of life, death, and rebirth. Life has become stuck in Ã¢â¬Å"living and partly living. Ã¢â¬ Still, even The Waste Land was Ã¢â¬Å"not merely a poem of despair of the present but of hope and promise for the future, since at the close the thunder speaks, foretelling the coming of the life-giving rainÃ¢â¬ (Baugh, p. 586). In a similar way, Murder in the Cathedral ends in hope-although more tempered by a realization of humanity's reluctance and inability to, in Becket's words, Ã¢â¬Å"bear too much reality. Ã¢â¬ Still, the Ã¢â¬Å"redemptionÃ¢â¬ of the seasons is an important symbolic motif in the play, as it was in Eliot's earlier work. Becket's retur n to Canterbury is clearly framed in terms that allude to Jesus' Ã¢â¬Å"Palm SundayÃ¢â¬ entrance into Jerusalem. For example, the Messenger's description of how the crowds are greeting the returning Becket-Ã¢â¬Å"with scenes of frenzied enthusiasm, / Lining the road and throwing down their capes, / Strewing the way with leaves and late flowers of the seasonÃ¢â¬ -is surely intended to remind Eliot's audience of Jesus' so-called Ã¢â¬Å"triumphal entryÃ¢â¬ into the holy city of Jerusalem on Palm Sunday: Ã¢â¬Å"Many people spread their cloaks on the road, and others spread leafy branches that they had cut in the fieldsÃ¢â¬ (Mark 11:8; see also parallels in Matthew 21 and Luke 19). In some Christian liturgical traditions, Palm Sunday is also called Ã¢â¬Å"Passion Sunday,Ã¢â¬ to indicate that it is the beginning of Jesus' sufferings. Thus, Eliot strongly associates Becket's Ã¢â¬Å"triumphal entryÃ¢â¬ into Canterbury with Jesus' Ã¢â¬Å"triumphal entryÃ¢â¬ into Jerusalem-a seeming victory procession that leads to martyrdom and death, and can therefore be considered victorious only in hindsight, through the eyes of faith, on the far side of resurrection. (A further allusion to the Palm Sunday narrative, incidentally, occurs when the second priest tells the women to keep silent, earning himself a rebuke from Becket. In a similar way, Jesus rebuked the religious authorities of his day for ordering the crowds who welcomed him to keep silence: Jesus told them, Ã¢â¬Å"I tell you, if these were silent, the stones would shout outÃ¢â¬ [Luke 19:40]. ) Overall, these parallels are meant to establish Becket as a salvific Christ-figure whose death will bring the blessing of transcendence to humanity. As Eliot wrote in Becket's Christmas sermon, mourning and rejoicing (note the repeated refrain, Ã¢â¬Å"Rejoice we all, keeping holy dayÃ¢â¬ ) commingle at Christmas; birth and death jostle for worshipers' attention; martyrdom-witness-takes precedence in the church's marking of the time. Understanding the significance of these three festival days increases our appreciation of the martyr's purpose, as exemplified in Becket's own death: to make transcendence available to human. The titular hero of the biblical book of Daniel, who remains steadfast to God (in the context of Eliot's dichotomy, read: spiritual) in the face of pressures to assimilate to a pagan (read: temporal) culture. Ezekiel 14:14, 20 also praise Daniel as an exemplar of righteousness, even as Becket is as he faces death. Ironically, of course, Daniel, according to the Bible, was delivered from the lions' den as a consequence of his faithfulness to God. No such physical deliverance awaits Becket. The archbishop does, however, seem to mirror the attitude of Daniel's three friends Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who, faced with death in a fiery furnace for refusing to worship an idol, declared, Ã¢â¬Å"If our God whom we serve is able to deliver us. let him deliver us. But if not, be it known to you, O king that we will not serve your gods. Ã¢â¬ (Daniel 3:17-18). Becket, like Daniel's friends, is ready to die for God (the spiritual): Ã¢â¬Å"Do with me as you willÃ¢â¬ (p. 76). Thus, the knights' invocation of Daniel at this point in the text creates a wealth of allusive value that illuminates Eliot's themes. The impending moment of Becket's martyrdom takes on an existential significance as the Chorus reflects upon what awaits humanity after death. The Chorus identifies Death s Ã¢â¬Å"God's silent servant,Ã¢â¬ and acknowledges, in orthodox fashion, that Judgment awaits mortals Ã¢â¬Å"behind the face of Death. Ã¢â¬ The Chorus then, however, strikes a decidedly unorthodox tone in affirming that Ã¢â¬Å"behind Judgment [is] the Void, more horrid than active shapes of hellÃ¢â¬ (p. 71). In terms that again echo Eliot's earlier work, The Waste Land, the Chorus describes this Void as: Ã¢â¬Å"Emptiness, absence, separation from God; / The horro r of the effortless journey, to the empty land / Which is no land, only emptiness, absence, the Void. Ã¢â¬ (p. 71). Ironically, however, it is this very Ã¢â¬Å"Void,Ã¢â¬ free of distraction, with no opportunity to avoid a truthful gazing upon oneself, that Becket is embracing in choosing to die a martyr's death. This speech of the Chorus thus seems to emphasize, once more, a distinction in Eliot's mind between men like Becket-the Ã¢â¬Å"saintsÃ¢â¬ who cause the wheel of God's pattern in time to turn-and ordinary mortals, who are content-even though they deny it! -to merely exist, to be only and always in Advent, only and always waiting, only and always Ã¢â¬Å"living and partly living. Ã¢â¬ Truly, we cannot bear too much reality! We do not wish to stare into the void, the abyss. But Eliot, like other existential thinkers of the twentieth century, understand that peering into that abyss is fundamentally a salvific, liberating act, signified in Eliot's play by the Ã¢â¬Å"savingÃ¢â¬ consequences of Becket's death for a world that would rather not be saved. Character profilesThe Chorus is an unspecified number of Canterbury's women, is a corporate character serving the same purposes as does the chorus in Greek drama: to develop and, more importantly, to comment on the action of the play. The women's initial speech fairly defines their dramaturgic role: Ã¢â¬Å"We are forced to bear witness. Ã¢â¬ And yet this chorus, like its ancient Greek predecessors, is no mere, dispassionate, objective Ã¢â¬Å"eyewitnessÃ¢â¬ ; rather, it is a witness bearing testimony to truth-almost as in a legal proceeding, but that analogy fails to capture the nature of the testimony the chorus offers. In commenting upon the action of Thomas Becket's murder, the women are voicing insights into, reflections on, and conclusions about time, destiny, and life and death. In the end, they emerge as representatives of ordinary people-such as those who make up the audience of the play, or its readership-people who, mired in and having settled for an existence of Ã¢â¬Å"living and partly living,Ã¢â¬ are unable to greet transcendence when it is offered to them. As they state in the play's final moments, not everyone can bear the Ã¢â¬Å"loneliness, surrender, deprivationÃ¢â¬ necessary to become a saint. Not all can be saints-but all can pray for their intercession. Thomas Becket is the Archbishop of Canterbury, former Chancellor to King Henry II, now estranged from the monarch because he insists upon the right of the Church to rule in spiritual matters-a rule that, in practice, has ramifications for how the king ought to rule in temporal matters. Unlike the Chorus, Becket is able to stare into the existential abyss-that Ã¢â¬Å"VoidÃ¢â¬ behind death and judgment, mentioned in Part II, that is Ã¢â¬Å"more horrid than active shapes of hell. Becket is often accused of pride in the play, but he is actually humble in submitting himself completely to the will of God as he comprehends it. His death offers a glimpse of how transcendence can be achieved: the only question that remains is whether the rest of humanity is able to trace the same path, to Ã¢â¬Å"give [its] life / To the Law of God above the Law of Man. Ã¢â¬Å"The Four Tempters present Becket, in Part I of the drama, with various ways of avoiding his impending death as a martyr. Their temptations correlate, to one degree or another, with the justifications of Becket's assassination offered to the audience by The Four Knights at the end of the play. In a prefatory note to the play's third edition (1937), Eliot indicated that the roles of the Tempters had been intended to be doubled-that is, played by the same actors-as the roles of the Knights, thus underscoring the connection between the two quartets in an even stronger fashion. The Three Priests serve the (admittedly little) dramatic action of Eliot's play, particularly in Part II, when they urge Becket to bar the doors of the Cathedral against the knights-although they characterize them as savage beasts-who seek his life. They could thus be seen as representing the temporal order: indeed, Becket at one point accuses them of thinking only as the world does-Ã¢â¬Å"You argue by results, as this world does. Ã¢â¬ On the other hand, the Priests also are capable of offering insight into the spiritual order. For example, the Third Priest affirms the Church's endurance in the face of world built on the ruins of the presumed absence of God; and earlier, he offers a key interpretive insight by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"Even now, in sordid particulars / The eternal design may appear. Ã¢â¬ Like so many of us, then, the priests have one foot, so to speak, in the spiritual and the other in the temporal; and they struggle to balance the two orders as best they can, as do we all. Unfortunately, according to the argument of Eliot's drama, there can ultimately be no balancing: peace-that is to say, transcendence-is to be found only in the complete submission to God's design, God's pattern, God's wheel of providence. Mortals, say both Jesus and Eliot, cannot serve two masters-and so the Priests are fundamentally impotent, unable to do anything but to pray to God with heavy reliance upon the intercession of Saint Becket, as they, in their own way but like the Chorus, go on Ã¢â¬Å"living and partly living. Ã¢â¬Å"
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
The media is a fascinating tool; it can deliver entertainment, self-help, intellectual knowledge, information, and a variety of other positive influences; however, despite its advances for the good of our society is has a particular blemish in its physique that targets young women. This blemish is seen in the unrealistic body images that it presents, and the inconsiderate method of delivery that forces its audience into interest and attendance. Women are bombarded with messages from every media source to change their bodies, buy specific products and redefine their opinion of beauty to the point where it becomes not only a psychological disease, but a physical one as well. The issue, as mentioned above, is largely due to the fact that theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Anorexia is one such process that is growing in popularity and affecting Ã¢â¬Å"three to five percent of young Canadian women [between the ages of] 14 and 25Ã¢â¬ (Milne 5). Dr. Joan Johnston, an Edmonton family physician, describes this method as being unhealthy and ineffective and relates to her own experience by stating Ã¢â¬Å"I weigh 133 [pounds], the same as I did before anorexiaÃ¢â¬ and that the Ã¢â¬Å"societal problemÃ¢â¬ ¦is not getting any betterÃ¢â¬ . Women are plagued not only with a psychological issue of achieving a perfect body, as described by the media, but also physical disorders that will plague them for years to come if they continue resorting to certain options. The media also proves its irresponsibility towards women as it advertises various products or treatments for those who wish to achieve a specific body image. Some of these products, such as the proven medicinal ones, may have the capability of reducing a personÃ¢â¬â¢s weight or changing their image, but in many cases false advertisement gets the better of its viewers. Despite this fact many will continue using a product in desperation for a change. Milne confirms this notion when she mentions several statistics that are centered around appearance related topics: Ã¢â¬Å"unhappiness with body image seems to be a national preoccupationÃ¢â¬ ¦70% of Canadian women are preoccupied with their weightÃ¢â¬ ¦[and] 24% of women would give up three years of their life to achieve their weight goalsÃ¢â¬ (Milne 4, 9). Deborah A. Sullivan, author ofShow MoreRelatedRepresentation Of The Female Body Image And The Mass Media1586 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesREPRESENTATION OF HOW WOMEN PROMOTE EXCERSISE IN NEW ZEALAND MEDIA AND HOW IT AFFECTS FEMALES Female Body Image and the Mass Media: Perspectives on How Women Internalize the Ideal Beauty Standard Representation of women in the media can change the way that the people of New ZealanderÃ¢â¬â¢s think of themselves. Media has a powerful ability to reach many people and to influence and direct attitudes of our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviours and knowledge. - Magazines (the representation of kiwi identity they create)Read MoreFemale Body Image and the Mass Media Essay2272 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagescompares her body to the image depicted on Self magazine. She starts nitpicking every part of her body. She looks down at her denim clad- thigh and thinks, Ã¢â¬Å"did my thighs and stomach get bigger than they were this morning? Ã¢â¬Å" Influenced by the depiction of the image of Miranda Kerr, she now views her body as inadequate or ugly. Since she feels that her body is not beautiful and has negative thoughts, Emily seems to have negative body image. This perception of her physical appearance is known as body imageRead MoreFemale Body Image and the Mass Media Essay1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesborn, girls are influenced by society as to who they should be, how they should look, and how they should act. Americans believe that women should be to a certain standard; pretty, feminine, and especially, thin. The pressures derive from family, media, and friends. Marge PiercyÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Barbie DollÃ¢â¬ depicts a girl who was never recognized for her character and spent her life trying to be accepted for who she was, rather than how she looked. We live in a society with rigid gender roles and expectationsRead MoreAnalysis of Article: Ã¢â¬Å"Influence of Mass Media on Body Image and Eating Disordered Attitudes and Behaviors in FemalesÃ¢â¬ by Jordi Fauquet, et al.747 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMass media consists of a range of multimedia technologies that have enhanced our way of communication. The media conveys norms and attitudes that socially construct those who are involved. Inadvertently, the media depicts a widely accepted misconception of personal image. Ã¢â¬Å"Influence of Mass Media on Body Image and Eating Disordered Attitudes and Behaviors in FemalesÃ¢â¬ reveals the high correlation between media content and femalesÃ¢â¬â¢ idea of beauty. Although the article does not specify on their intendedRead MoreInfluence of American Mass Media Ideals on Body Image and Eating Disorders in the U.S1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMass media have an enormous impact on society and how people act, especially in developed countries. How do mass media influence views of body image and the development of eating disorders? People living in countries influenced by Western culture show concern for their appearance or dietary habits daily. This paper will analyze the effect of mass media on the issues of body image and eating disorders in the United States. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TRRead MoreMass Media s Influence On Society962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOver the years mass media has become more available and favored by society through avenues such as magazines, television, newspapers, print ads, internet, and including social media. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2007), individuals spend nearly a total of 3,518 hours of their time on mass media outlets. Mass media has become widely popular among individuals, in particularly young adults.73% of U.S adults aged 18Ã¢â¬â29, have been reported regularly visit at least one of these outlet, and 42% use moreRead MoreMedia s Impact On Media Consumption Essay1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaccess an infinite amount of resources on the internet, 24 hours a day 7 days a week (XXXX). The rapid technological advancements has shifted the consumption of media from television, magazines and billboards to online digital media channels accessed via mobile de vices, creating a Ã¢â¬Ëbedroom cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sumner, 2016) for many. The shift in media consumption has particularly been induced by the emergence of Social Networking Sites as well as other online platforms, which have become an integral part ofRead MoreMedia s Effect On Teens986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe American media industry generates approximately 600 billion dollars annually through its programming and advertisements. The economic system of the United States and tough market competition have led to a massive media boom, and being the largest industry in the United States in terms of revenue, The media have been successful in corrupting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, with young teens being the largest group of victims. In the current situation, our economic, social and political decisions are widely beingRead MoreTeenage Girls and Body Image Essay1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTeenage girls are at an impressionable time in their lives. Mass Media is a key idea in one of the factors of socialization that become important to teenagers. Teenagers look to the media for a sense of entertainment. Whether it is movies, magazines, or even some aspects of social media, teenagers get a lot of influence from the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s message. The problem with this is the media has a specific way of doing things and can be negative to a susceptible teenage girl. MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s way of portraying a womanRead MoreThe Media Responsible For Females Essay1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIs the media responsible for females, especially youths, for having low self-esteem and lack of confidence? Is the media responsible for the development of eating behaviours and disorders? In a culture with saturated media, the powerful influence upon women and younger girls is a continuous debate. Females of all ages come under immense pressure from the media, friends, partners and even parents to maintain a great body shape. The body images portrayed in the media can then push a female to go